Troy Culture Layers

The investigations of Schliemann and Dôrpfeld and the modern, well-planned excavations of the Cincinnati Group under Professor Biegen proved that Troy-consisted of 9 different culture layers,

TROY 1: 3200 – 2600 A.D

The oldest Troy settlement was built on rock at the beginning of the Copper Age. In this layer, tools and weapons made of copper were found. The question of who founded this settlement, .however, has not yet been settled. The people who lived here were at q fairly advanced stage; they were able to make houses that were large, square or even on a round plan, the walls of which were made of stone and sun-dried bricks. Timber was also used for both the walls and the roofs. The shorter walls’of this construction had a door opening either inside or outside leading into a kind of porch. A fireplace was constructed in the center of the building. This is the first example of the large megarons to be seen at Troy ll.

It can be seen that the first settlement was effected in three stages. In the last two stages, a city wail surrounds a small town”, this wall being constructed of large stones at the bottom and small stones at the top,interwoven with sun-dried brick and tirhbet- in a herringbone design. The wail had large towers. Thus, we see that even the first settlement provided the appearance of a state.

The important point was the presence of meial and particularly this layer, enabling us to place this Troy stratum in the Chalcolithic period. The largo number of bobbins, and wool spindles found in this layer indicate that it was the custom to wear clothes. The most important find of the Biegen team was a relief of a human being worked in limestone. This is the first plastic memorial dating from this period found in Anatolia and the Aegean region, and it is unlike Mesopotamian work. Thus Troy may be considered as an autochton civilization.

The fact that the walls found in Troy i are crooked indicate that It was an earthquake rather than a battle which destroyed the piace. This town went through three phases, and it was subsequent to the third phase that Troy .II was built.

TROY II; 2600-2300 B.C.

Troy II was a town of considerable fame with great city walls, fine towers, magnificent gates. The walls were constructed of large blocks of stone carved on either side timber and sun-dried brick being made use of. There were a number of large houses and fine megerons, and the palace of the ruler stood out in the center of the open space which was enclosed by the city walls.

There was a great deal of wealth, and Schiemann and Blegerij found their collections of gold, silver and capper in this layer. A single house here yielded nearly a hundred pots and vessels. The pots have handles in the shape of ears. Other finds include a number of flywheels, flaring bowls, pots in the shape of human figures and animals, ceremonial vases with two handles (amph-ichlpellos). These are similar to those found at Alaca and Karoog-lan.Among the cultural objects found in this layer are an Important number of stone idols and seals. Troy ¡1 established close relationships with Central Anatolia, Hellas and the Aegean area, but was destroyed as the result of an invasion.

TROY 111 – IV: 2300 – 2050 B.C.

These two cities were of a quite different character. The construction is af rather poor quality. The pots and vessels found here are of a different type, but flaring bowls continue to be found. The new type of vessel is in the form of a jug with one handle and a long beak – like mouth. As in Troy II, the ceramic is of one dominant, pale color. The Inhabitants were mainly’farmers and shepherds.

TROY V: 2050 – 1900 B.C.

A certain progress is to be seen In Troy V. The constructions found outside the famous city walls of Troy VI indicated, in square No, A 7-6 of Dorpfeld’s plan, are of considerable interest. The smoll four-sided rooms with yellow plaster surrounded with high walls are reminiscent .of both Yumuk tepe and the Phrygian walls ot Alisar, This city was repeatedly burnt down or destroyed and then rebuilt.

The period of these construction coincides with the Bronze Age. The pots and vessels are mainly light In colour for decoration, and the Latin cross is found decorating the Inside of the pots. This type of decoration is atso to be found In the upper Bronze Age layer at Alaca and also at Karaoglan in the so-called Proto Hittite stage. This layer was destroyed by fire.

TROY VI; 1900 – 1300 B.C.

Troy VI covers a wider area than the other layers with its fine city walis, military and civil constructions. This settlement has been the subject of extensive research.

The city walls, which are 4.5 meters wide in places, are fortlfied-with towers built of cut stane. To the south is the Dardanas Gate mentioned by Horner, Other smaller gates were also found. The north septian of the walls was completely destroyed in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and materials taken from here were used in the construction of the Temple of Athena and other buildings.

The finding of a number of large houses in the Acropolis dating from this period, of water closets Inside the constructions at the foot of the city walls, of vast jars for storing corn in the houses, all indicate that the Troy Mound was a fortified area used as a place of refuge in time of war by the inhabitants of small settlements round about.

The most important archaeological find linking Troy VI with the Hittite Culture field is the burial ground of the sixth city, situated to the south east where burnt bodies were buried. This burial A reconstructed plan of settlement II g; a ivalled fortress with a single, heavily fortified entrance gate. In the centre is the great ‘megaron’ assembly-hall and to the west the residential palace. Area: about five acres (After Seton Lloyd). ground dates from the 14th century B.C. and is contemporary with the Hittite inscriptions describing the burning of the dead. Here weres, found hundreds of examples of this method df burial. The bodies were partly cremated then the remaining bones and ashes were placed in small jar’s.

The constructions found in this layer consist of one or several rooms. Blegen discovered a basilica-like construction to the east of the Acropolis, flanked on either side with five columns. There is no other construction of this type in the Aegean- region, and it is reminiscent of Anatolian Hittite architecture. The Mycenaean pots and vessels found inside ¡his building lead one to think that it was constructed about 1400 B.C. An older house is to be found a little to the south which is of Archaic Greek architecture built on the axial system, having supports of timber.

In addition, to the south are to be found the traces of a building with arcades and stone columns which was obviously a temple, proving that such buildings were to be found in the Vt layer of the Troy mound.

The pale singed color which was dominant in Troy V continues into the first part of phase VI. The pots are a faded red or camel-coloured, and subsequently pots ond vessels were made in a dark beige. Only In the final stages does one find the influencb of brightly colored pots brought from Cyprus and Mycena which led to the local production of pots of this type. However, Blegen hod indicated that the many colored pots were to be found in Anatolia. One must here mention the dark beige pots with line decoration filled in with paste which were found in the Alacahoyuk excavations and in the Hittite layer at Karaoglan.

After flourishing for a considerable period, this Troy settlement was destroyed In the second half of the 14th century B.C. as, the result of an earthquake during which the city walls, the towers and the upper part of the large houses wore knocked down, or cracked.

TROY V) l A: 1300 -1200 B.C.

There are two more layers consisting of relatively small constructions on top of the town of Troy VI. These were given the names of Vila and Vllb by Dorpfeld, and are proved to be different by the culture objocts found there.

The Vila layer was founded on what was left standing of Troy Vi walls and houses, following the earthquake. The new constructions were rough but solid. This layer was. short lived and was razed as the result of a severe fire.

On studying the imported Mycenaean objects found, it was decided that this fire took place in about 1200 B.C. The Troy of Homer in the belief of Dorpfeld and Blegen was sijed at this Vila layer, which Homer referred to as The Tower of Aeneas.

TROY VI) B: 1200 – 900 B.C.

‘I’his layer-was constructed following the fire in’Vila. Troy at thits period. was under the rule of a new race, namely the tribes of Cimmerians Treriuns who, as Homer related, captured the Tower of Aeneas, at the beginning of the First century, and settled there.

The pots and vessels found in this layer are entirely different, and are of the type known as «buckkelkeramik». They differ in the respect that they are decorated with reliefs on the tops and handles. Black in color and primitive in shape, the origin of this type of pot’ is the Balkans. This town was also destroyed by fire in 900 B.C.

TROY VIII: 900-350 B.C.

Dorpfeld excavated this new settlement consisting of buildings and remains of the Classic Age bui/t on the VII layer and gave it the name o! Troy VII. The traditions of layer VI are here again present. It Is clear that the Inhabitants of Troy VII overcame the disaster in an amazing fashion.

The BJegen group discovered numerous find important finds in this layer (at the place marked 47-8 in the Dorpfeld plan) These included a wide staircase panelled with finely worked stone and taking the form of a monument, oval and four sided altars, ashes, coal and bones at a place where blood had been spilt, a place of sacrificed hearts, a well (20 meters deep) and pots and vessels decorated with herringbone designs of branches and leafs in relief on a deep black or very bright colored ground.

TROY IX: 350 B.C.-400 A.D.

There is no doubt that the buildings and tempies of the Hellenistic and Roman Age Ilium and the Acropolis of Troy VIII were mercilessly damaged. In a number of places, the material from previous periods has been plundered. However, the last Troy lived again in the Hellenistic era. Alexander and his commanders gave it that brilliance that made it worthy of the admiration of Homer. It is well known that .Roman and Byzantine Emperors gave it great importance up to the 5th century A.D.

Among the constructions of the Roman period are the south gate and the agora, to be found to the south of this gate. Proceding west from the agora, one comes across o theatre (Odeon) which has statuary behind the orchestra pit and Ionian and Corinthian columns decorating the entrance. To the east of the gate to Troy VI there is another theater, and. In the center of the place reserved for the orchestra, Is an altar.

Temple Of Athena

During the time of Alexander the Great, a temple was erected to the goddess of inteiligence, meditation and the arts, Athena (Minerva). The Emperor Augustus caused this temple which had been destroyed, to be rebuilt on the Trojan Acropolis. This new temple covered an area of BO square meters and was surrounded on the east, west and south sides by columns. In historical times, this temple was reached by a road which passed between two theaters. Four columns stood at the entrance to this street. (Propylaeum). Marble Columns, capitals of Doric columns and pieces of architrave from this temple have been found. To the east there was a terrace made of limestone paving formerly covered with marble, which may still be seen today. To the east again was an altar probably dedicated to the goddess.

While excavating the graveyard to the southeast of the Acropolis, the remains of a church dating from the 5th century A.D. were discovered. The mosaics from this church are among the remains worth seeing.


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