Ruins Of Halicarnassus

The Mausoleum : One of the most famous of all the monuments in the ancient world was the tomb of King Mausolus. Construction was begun during the king’s reign, in the fourth century B.C., and finished after his death. Today, however, very little remains of the monument, (but its site has been extensively excavated.) A great deal of descriptive Information and specifications of the huge Mausoleum has come down from Pliny and other ancient writers. It was nearly fifty meters high, and must have been visible from some distance at sea. The foundation was rectangular, measuring about twenty meters on the long sides. Upon the foundation was erected a stone pedestal, then the sepulchral chamber, topped by a pyramid-shaped roof. The upper chamber was surrounded by thirty-six Ionic columns which supported the stepped roof. In a chariot at the very top were pfaced the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia. Marble reliefs adorned the four sides of the pedestal depicting the Hellenic Wars with the Amazons and Centaurs. The architects Strayrus and Pythius built the monument, while four ranking sculptors, Skopas, Bryoxis, Timotheus and Leochares each ^ carved a side of the pedestal, Credit for the chariot and statues * on top of the structure is given to the sculptor-architect Pythius, The Mausoleum was reported etill standing in the twelfth century, but, by the beginning of the fifteenth, it had been reduced to a pile of rubble, apparently a result of an earthquake. And it was not until 1856, that the Englishman Newton verified the actual location of the Mausoleum. His excavations were rewarded with several fragments of the reliefs, namely the depictions of the Amazon Wars and some lion carvings, as well as the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia. These are now on display in the British Museum, Other, ‘more recent finds, are an display In the Bodrum Museum.

Other Monuments: Quite naturally, Halicarnassus possessed a vast number of other large monuments, temples and the iike, blit the foundations of those that have survived into modern times are covered over by the Turkish town. Temples that once stood In the city include those dedicated to Hermes, Ares and Demeter, Aphrodite, and Persophone. The famous Agora has also vanished through the ages. Remote sections of the city walls are still to be found standing, however.

The Castle: The medieval Castle of Saint Peter IS tJie most .Obvious of the area’s landmarks today, standing on the narrow strip of land at the point that separates the city’s inner and outer harbors. The castle was constructed from the ruins of a Dorian acropolis that once stood in ancient Halicarnassus by knights of the Order of Saint John. These soldiers of the cross had been grouped from various nations including England, France, Italy and Germany, and had formed their own community and government on the island of Rhodes. Unfortunately, in the process of constructing the castle, the knights found It necessary to utilize the remaining pieces of the mausoleum. In fact, even today, pieces of the Mausoleum’s facode may be seen in the castle’s walls. Permission was obtained from the Ottoman sultan, Abdul Medcft in 1846, for the removal of several of the Mausoleum’s friezes from the castle walls. These were sent to the British Museum. Another section of the Mausoleum’s art work, a depiction of a lion, may be seen in the castle’s English Tower. Others of the fortress towers include the Italian Tower, the French Tower, the German Tower and the Serpentine Tower. Also within the castie walls are the various halls of the Bodrum Museum. The Latin inscription over the entrance-way records that punishment was in order for anyone caught disobeying the laws of the castle. Numerous coats of arms, Ottoman cannons, and various relics from by-gone days are of special interest inside the walls.

The Museum : The castle museum is divided into three sections c^id includes ct seperate area for display of items brought up from the bottom of the sea. The first section is found in the chapel, one of the oldest parts of the fort. The displays in window number one were discovered during excavations In 1963. These are dishes and untensils from the early Bronze age, dating to the ninth century B.C. A casket near this display area was discovered in a Dorian vault. The jewelry, weapons, dishes and bronzes (n displays numbered 2 through 15 date to around 1200 B.C., the Mycenean Age. Very typical of the Mycenean pottery is the colorful design and stylized motifs. The marble relief depicting the wars of the Greeks and Amazons Is part of the Mausoleum frieze. This particular piece is thought to have been the work of Skopas, Statues included in this area are those of Demeter, the goddess of fertility, another headless statue from Hellenistic times and an Archaic piece discovered in Kaunos. The large barrel-grave behind the first display in this room also dates to the eariy Bronze Age. Another smaller stone sarcophagus, discovered in recent Bodrum excavations was that of a child. The second section of the museum, the under-water section, is made up of three display halls and an open shed. In the first hall are clay furnaces from sunken ships, as well as earthenware implements from the nearby Aegean Islands. Most of these have been dated between the sixth and first centuries B.C. A. Hellenistic bronze bust of a Negro child is especially interesting, The objects in Hail Number 2 were recovered from a Phoenician vessel that has been dated to around 1300 B.C. The large bronze sheets are among the first known examples early monetary units. Hail Number 3 displays the findings of a 1960 expedition, of a sunken Byzantine ship west of Bodrum. Especially interesting in this hall are the paintings showing underwater excavation techniques. The last section of the underwater displays, includes large vases and amphoras. Opposite the shed are some examples of ancient ships’ anchors. The last main section of the museum, the Carian Hall, includes objects from various periods that have been found in the area of ancient Daria. The exhibits include gold and silver jewelry and coins that were produced In the surrounding area. examples of oil lamps from various ages, religious statues and figurines, kitchen utensils and dishes, Hellenistic and Roman glassware, and other items from the Archaic, Classical Hellenistic, Greek and Byzantine periods.

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