Kolophon was one of the oldest and most Important cities af Ionia. It was situated on the coast of Asia, and its close position to the sea resulted in o strong noval fleet. The terrain of Kolophon was Weal for raising horses, and the city became famous for Its cavalry. In battle, the use of Kolophonian cavalry was a decisive factor in the outcome of the encounter. Another animal which played an important part In Kolophonian military life as well as religious life was its dogs. Dogs were utilized in battle and also in religious sacrifices. The Kolophonians along with the Spartans were the only members of the Greek world to put dogs to this use. The Kolophonians- offered a black bitch to Hecate, the deity the underwold, and the Spartans, typically, sacrificed dogs to the war god.


The Kolophonians derived their wealth from the fertile soil and their maritime skills. In the first half of the seventh century B.C., Kolophon was dominated by the Lydians. It was the only Greek city apart from Magnesia to be captured in the early Lydian Wars. According to ancient writers, Kolophonian excessiveness undermined the strength of the city. The majority of citizens were extremely wealthy, and their decadence and profligacy led to their downfall. After a century and o half of Lydian domination, the city came under Persian rule and lost most of its importance. Notium, a neighboring Athenion city to the south, developed in its stead During the Pelopponesian Wars, Kolophon was divided into two camps. One side preferred the old conditions under the Persians, while the other side was content to be tribute-paying members of the Athenian Maritime Confederacy. The former party called in Persian forces to occupy the town, and the anti-Persian Kolophonians fled down to Notium. There a simitar split had developed. Through trickery and o surprise attack, the Athenian commander there captured Natium from .the Persians, and handed it over to the Pro-Athenians. Kolophon remained in Persian hands until the conquest of Alexander the Great.

The state of Kolophon was totally weakened when it undertook battle with Lysimachos—and lost. Lysimachos forced many of the Kolophonians to emigrate to the newly founded city of Ephesus so that they might help In Its developement. Others were allowed to move to Notion. Following the death of Lysimachos, Kolophon    was    rebuilt and reinforced with    a new city wall, It was at this time    that    it became    referred to as    Archaic    Kolophon. Notion become known as New-Kolophon, and it took on the fame that Koiophon  had  lost. But even New-Kolophon could  not compete with the rapid    development of    Ephesus which    became    the major city in the vicinity. Ephesus soon overshadowed the Kolophonian triumph in fame and fortune.


Today there is not much left to see of ancient Kolophon apart from the famous Temple of Kioros which is located nearby. The city was built on three hills and surrounded by a. wall which enclosed an area of one square kilometer. Only o small part of the Hellenistic wall still remains. Some American excavations have brought to light some other interesting remains such as streets and ruins o„f a Roman bath dating to the fourth century B.C


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