This is the most important and prominent of the monuments left over from the Byzantine Period. It is one of the best examples of Byzantine fortifications in existence. The citadel consists of an inner and an outer line of defensive walls which are strung with towers every twenty or so meters. The area within the wall is roughly 350 meters from north to south and 200 from east to west. An Interesting aspect of the watch and battle stations is that these towers are pentagonal, the better to ward off the devastating effects of ancient siege weapons. The citadel was Anatolia’s mightiest fortress. It was built by the Galatians and expanded by the Romans during the time of Augustus. The walls Plan of the Citadel of Ankara of the citadel enclose the Roman Agora or market place.
During later periods the walls were repaired with the ruins of Roman structures, and this can be seen aiong the length of the outer wall. From ail appearances, the decorated Roman building materials and statuary that went into reinforcing the citadel wall were arranged for at least an artistic if not a superstitious effect. Seven Christian crosses fine the south face of the fortress, possibly to ward off enemies. The Ottomans rebuilt the crumbling walls and this became the center of the Ottoman city. Inside the citadel outer wait is the oldest mosque in Ankara, the Alâeddin Cami.