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Schuemann’s Excavations

A) Grave of Aesyetes
To the south, on the road going from Hisarlık to Akçaköy, this place is now known as Pasha Tepe. In the llliad this is mentioned as the observation point of Polites of Troy, During excavations, rock was reached at 4.5 meters and pieces of protohistoric and Archaic Greek vessels were found, but the inner tomb was not discovered. It appeared that this place had been the site of a small settlement.
B) Tumulus of Uyucek Tepe
During excavations, a four-sided tower 80 meters high was found standing on a wall 10.20 meters across. This was the memorial . and tumulus which the Emperor Caracalla (211-216 A.D.) caused to be erected near Troy in memory of his closest friend Festus. Pots and utensils were unearthed during the diggings,
C) Tumulus of Beslktepe
Situated on a pile of rocks to the south of Yenlkoy, at the edge of Koca Liman, on the western shores of the penninsula, this tumulus is referred to by Barker Webb and recent travellers as the grave of Menelaus, This spot was carefully examined as it was the main center of the Trojan Wars. Schilemann here found pieces of pots and vessels resembling the ceramics of «Troy Is and Troy II in addition to primitive pots, hammers and axes of similar date to those of Troy but different in shape. These objects can be found mainly in Anatolia, at Ahlatlibel for Instance. In his study entitled «The Greek Marine Headquarters in ,Front of Troy», Dorpfeld suggests that these headquarters should be looked for in the Besiktepe bay

D) Hill of Haghios Demetrios

This mound, on one of the hills on the shore, immediately to the north of Yenikoy, was excavated, and rocks were discovered at a depth of 1.50 meters, but only Roman pots and utensils were found. This enterprise proved somewhat disappointing: The remains of .a church are to be seen on the north side of the tumulus

E) The Tumulus Known As The Tomb Of Ilius

In 1879 Schfiemann excavated this tumulus on the right hand shore of the Kalafatli pool, a little to the north of Kumkoy.

Given the name of «Dardania» after the legendary king Dardanus, this was later changed to «Troia», after the other king in the legend, King Tros, and, finally, this celebrated place became known as Ilius», after Iluis, grandson of these kings. The tumulus

is one meter high and 11.50 meters across, and although thought to have contained the grave of this legendary hero, almost nothing was discovered there.

F) Tumulus, known as the Tomb of Achilles (Achilleum)

This tumulus is to be found on the high hills at Sigeion Point, on the north end of the peninsula. It is on the Aegean shore, about 250 feet to the west of the Straits, No trace was found of the buried remains in the 3 meters square shaft from which was dug broken pots and the point of a bronze arrow dating from the Archaic or post Mycenaean eras (10th and 9th centuries B.C.) These were considered to be of great importance.

G) Tumulus known as the Tomb of Priam

This tumulus, discovered on Ballidag Mountain towards the end of the 18th century by Lechavalier, was investigated and given the name of the Tomb, of Priam.

The mound is 4 meters high. It was also taken in hand toy Schiiemann in 1882. Excavations revealed a construction 3.60 by 4.20 meters standing on rock. This is a pillaged Hellenistic grave built of large square rocks roughly decorated and put together without mortar

H) Tumulus known as the Tomb of Patroclus

Situated a little to the south of the Achiiieum Tumulus, this was given the name of the Tomb of Patroclus by Lechevalier and Comte Choiseul. Subject of perhaps the most pathetic poems in the liiad (liliam, XXIII], Patroclus, hero of the Greek army, was buried here in a manner, befitting their friendship by Achilles, Gold dishes, magnificent grave-stones, piles of treasure, these were living symbols in the memory of those who had read the Iliad and rushed to the Troy peninsula. Twenty-seven meters in diameter and 6 meters high, this tomb was found to contain fragments of Archaic pots resembling those at the Achilleum.

I) Ruins at Dededagi

The ruins known as Eski Hisarlik are situated at a height of 68 feet to the east of the spring, on the right bank of the Menderes (Meander) river, 2.5 kms to the north east. Excavations revealed two circular walls, one within tho other, with a distance of 50 meters between them. The centre is 60 meters in diameter. According to Schiiemann, these were fortifications. The pots and vessels found here are of great interest. They include pots made on a wheel, rough, without a joint and well-baked, of the same date as the ll-V Troy layers, and others which resemble those found in the V-IX layers.

J) Ruins at Kurşunlu Tepe

¡0 These ruins, situated to the south east of the peninsula, to the east of Dededağı are the remains of a town. Leaf asserts that this is «Scepsis» and Schliemann, rather strangely, gave it the name of Dardanie. The city walls are 2.80 meters thick, are built of blocks of stone hewn into shape on the inside and outside, with the spaces between filled with small stones. On the top of the hill, the foundations of a construction 3×1.80 meters were uncovered. The vessels found here are like those discovered at Dededağ.

K) The Old Town of Cebrene

Following his investigations at Calidağ based on the writings of Strabo, Schliemann discovered rock graves with rotted skeletons inside. The treasure retrieved from these graves amounts to two silver earrings, one iron stool, one bronze drinking cup. In addition, bronze coins minted for the town of Cebrene and a seal were found.

B— EXCAVATIONS EFFECTED BY THE CINCINNATI GROUP

This group worked seven years to carry out the Blegen program. Below is an account of the diggings and research in chronological order:

A — Excavation at Eski Hisarlık:

Nothing of importance in the way of a prehistoric site or culture layer was discovered at Eski Hisarlık to the east of Ballıdağ in the pasture of Pınarbaşı. Only an Archaic temple was found, at Kara tepe.

Three or 4 kms to the northwest of the Troy mound at Kumtepe, a culture layer oider than that of Troy I was discovered, It is possible that this was the first place of settlement of those who founded Troy I, and most important of all, it is also likely that excavations effected at Ida – Kazdağı, Assos Beşiktepe, Uyucektepe and Hanaytepe possibly show evidence of permanent settlements,

B — Excavations at Yenişehir Tepe:

At Yenişehir Sigeion, considered to be a Roman settlement dating from the Classical Age, were discovered Mycenaean pots and vessels contemporary to Troy VI, Thus the problem of the Sigeion settlement mentioned a thousand times by Homer as the Maritime Headquarters of the Achaeans was solved.

C — Excavations at Kuku Tepe:

An Acropolis was uncovered as a result of diggings on this site.». It was clear from the remains of walls constructed of large blocks of stone and from the piles of vessels dating from Troy V[ right up to the Classical era, that this was the site of the ancient city of Rhoeteion.

D — Excavations at Coban tepe :

The most important finds were made at Cobontepe on the shore. Here were found a number-of pots from the Troy I period up to the end of the Classical Age. No traces of construction were discovered at Cobarttepe which was a small place of settlement ft was understood that this was the port for Troy.

Alt the research ana investigations carried out by the Cincinnati Group pointed to Troy or the peninsula of Hisarlik having been the only culture center which was the site of settlement layers of considerable size. This was also the opinion of Schiiemann and Dorpfeid.

Excavations effected in graveyards and the lower town in the vicinity of Troy, with the aim of collecting information regarding Sites connected with Troy, yielded important results. Among these were burnt and carbonised human bones, old type pots.and vessels made by hand, and .four Roman graves,

And underneath, a round wall where the prehistoric skeletons were discovered. Also found to the south: o Greco-Roman grave consisting of a well and large pots, the Classical agora with its thick walls, a large number of Mycenaean pats, and c grave of 15×20 meters, dating from Troy IV, In this grave were found 19 funeral jars intended for the ashes of the Troy Culture.

A Classical settlement was discovered to the southwest of the Acropolis. This was the Greco-Roman llion. A number of large earthenware pots, small figures, masks and coins wore found in the floors of the houses and a large basilica dating from the 10 century, with beautiful mosaics, was also discovered, in short, starting 100 meters from the Acropolis, a Classical settlement was unearthed with prehistoric graves.

The graves that were excavated, white throwing some light on the grave and graveyard question, also enabled some ideas to be formed on the subject of the Classical Age llion. The conclusion reached is that a lower town, as the Greek Period understood it, does not exist in the Troy mound. The mound and the acropolis together-constitute a fortified town. Troy extends over a wide area stretching to Mount Ida Assos, the Hellespont and the Aegean sea. The peninsula is thus an area rich in archaeology, history and art

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