Istanbul (Lat. 28-30’ E., Long. 41° N.) is situated between the Marmara and the Black Sea. This unique setting gives it a mixed climate, partly Mediterranean, partly Central European, and partly Black Sea, and the temperature varies considerably from season to season. In spring and autumn the Lodos [S. Wind) prevails, often heralding rain; in winter the Karayel (NW. Wind) brings cold and snow; in summer the N.E. breezes bring clear mild weather. The average annual rainfall is about 25″, most of which falls in winter. Autumn is the best season, long, and beautiful; spring comes suddenly after a short winter.
The Golden Horn (Haliç): Separating Beyoğlu from Old Istanbul, this narrow tongue of water stretches nearly 5 miles from Saray Point to the mouths of the Alibey (Byzantine Kidaris) and Kâğıthane streams; It is widest (770 yds.) between Kasımpaşa and Cibali. Its ancient name Chrysokeras (Golden Horn) Is attributed to the similarity of its shape to a bull’s horn, or alternatively to its abundance of fish. It is a superb natural harbor.
The Bosphorus (Boğaz İçi) : Dividing Europe from Asia, and Istanbul into 2 parts, the Bosphorus flaws for 17 miles from the Black Sea to the 1 1/4 mile long Kanal, which connects it with the Sea of Marmara, It is narrowest between Anadoiu and Rumeli His an.
Its European name is derived from Vosphoros (bull-bearing) or Vosporos (buil-passage). Legend relates that lo, daughter of King lolchus of Argolis, swam the straits in the form of a heifer to escape the wrath of Zeus.
Land and Sea Passage; Istanbul’s position as the Land’s End of Europe, pointing east, her excellent harbors, her advantageous position on the land route from Europe to Asia and the sea-route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea, have all combined to make her from earliest times an important commercial and political center, and she developed rapidly and always played a significant part in history.
Topographt Of Istanbul : İstanbul, one of the world’s most ancient cities, has existed in some form since 900 B. C. Pliny mentions the little walled town of Lygos having then existed on the point, though the walled city of history was Byzantium…>>
History Of Istanbul : It is known that the first settlement was colled Lygos, but the city’s history began in 658 B.C., when Byzos came with Greeks from Megara and, in obedience to an oracle, called the city he founded Byzantium after himself. It grew, was enlarged and fortified by the Argonauts. Its main occupation was fishing…>>
Walls Of Istanbul : Upparalleled in situation, beauty and dignified strength, these walls were built by the Byzantine emperors, who attached great importance to their strength and maintenance for Byzantium, with her untold wealth and beauty, attracted the ambition of many Invaders, among whom was the finally victorious Fatih Mehmet II…>>
Beyoğlu Istanbul : This is situated on the high ground north of the Golden Horn, and grew up gradually among the vineyards with which the hills were once covered, and developed as the European and diplomatic quarter..>>
Bosphorus : Counted as the,crowning beauty-of Istanbul, the Bosphorus is remarkable for the sheer extent of its beauty: if we cruise along it, every mile reveals new enchantment, new beauty, new romance. Harmonising with the natural beauties, the waterside villas seem almost to float on the water...>>