The city was founded in the 7th century B.C. by colonists from neighboring Sinop. During antiquity it was known as Trapezus. Trabzon become o Greek colony of some note during the 6th century B.C. It had turned back many invading armies through the years, except for the Goths, who captured and burned the city in the 3rd century A.D. Trabzon remained independent and free during the incursion Into Anatolia of. the Seljuks in the 17th century. The two sons of the Byzantine Emperor Andronlous escaped from the conquering Crusaders in 1204, when they took Constantinople, The two princes fled to Trabzon, The city was ruled by the Byzantine Alexis Commenus until 1461, when Mehmet the Conqueror took it over. Trabzon had lasted almost a decade after the Ottomans had established Anatolia as their own private preserve.
The Genoese held the city during the 13th century, and they were followed by the Venetians in the next century. Trabzon was very attractive to these early trading powers because of its importance as a major Black Sea port. When Mehmet the Conqueror finally took the city, he is said to have offered up prayers in the Church of Saint Eugenios. This was on a Friday, and the church became Known as the New Friday Mosque or, in Turkish, the Yeni Cuma Cami.
Among the historical monuments of interest in Trabzon and In the vicinity are the citadel, the Central Castle Mosque, the New Friday Mosque, the Church of Saint Sophia, the Ayvasli Church, the Gulbahar Hatun Mosque, the Atatürk Villa, and the remarkable Sufnela Monastery of the Holy Virgin.