The ruins of Euromos are situated at Ayakli in close proximity to the road between Milas and Lake Bafa. Approaching them from the direction of Milas, they are on the east side. Sixteen temple columns mark the site. The city Itself stood a short distance to the north on a hill overlooking the temple. After Mylasa, the city of Euromos was the most important center in this area. Controlling the northern plain, it gave its name to an expansive territory, Polybius
refers to «the cities in Euromos» which must have included Olymus and Chalcetor. The name Euromos dates from the Hellenistic period, ^ and means sstrong». Beginning in the 5th century A.D. the city was often referred to as Europus. In other instances, the city was called Kyromus and Hyromus
HISTORY OF EUROMOS
Euromos appears to have existed in a state of tension with her larger and more powerful neighbor Mylasa. The Euromans were forced into an alliance with the Mylasons during the latter’s revolt against Rhodiart supremacy in 1S7 B.C. When the Euromans found themselves In conflicts with other cities, they were forced to accept Mylasan mediation. Resentment characterized the attitude of the lesser citys’ citizens, and finally manifested itself in a turn to the Romans and Rhodians as allies. This secured Euromos, its independence. With independence came prosperity, This fact is attested to by the existing ruins. Excavations were begun on the site in 1969.
RUINS OF EUROMOS
The Temple: The temple Is one of the best, preserved in Asia Minor, It dates from the second century A.D. Belonging to the Corinthian order, it had eleven columns on the long sides and six on the short. The sixteen standing columns are complete with their architrave. Notice that the group of three columns on the south side and the southwest corner column lack fluting. This attests to the fact that the temple remained unfinished. On the west and north sides panels with dedicatory inscriptions memorialize the financial supporters of the temple’s construction. Menecrates, a state physician and magistrate, and his daughter Tryphaena donated five columns, Leo Quintus, another magistrate, donated seven of them.
Archaeological investigations begun in 1969 have resulted in several Interesting finds. The foundations of an altar have been uncovered in front of the temple on the east. Piles of blocks in the interior are being studied. An inscription dating from Hellenistic times records an honorific decree to be set up in the Temple of Zeus Lepsymus. This inscription proves that the existing building had at least one predecessor because the appellation Lepsymus is unique and not Greek.
The Wall: Approximately one hundred yards north of the temple Is a round tower which belonged to the city wall. Standing on a slight rise, Its construction is of ashlar masonry. From this point, the wall curves round in a northern direction with towers at Plan of the Temple of Zeus (After Ümit Serdaroğlu). various intervals. Averaging eight to nine feet in thickness, it has headers and rubble filling, it was profcably constructed shortly after 300 B.C. Descending in the north, into the plain, and crossing a ridge in the direction of the road, it then runs southward, parallel to the road on its west side for seven hundred yards before turning east to meet the tower close to the temple. Altogether, the wall enclosed an area nearly a quarter of a square mile.
The Theater: The theater may be found in the side of the hill, just above the plain. Although a large structure, it has deteriorated badly. Five rows of seats may be seen. Those best preserved are on the north. A corner of the stage buildings substructure is still extant with five or six courses standing.
The Agora : Situated on flat ground, the Agora was surrounded on four sides by a Stoa. Several columns belonging to this stoa are still standing.
Other Ruins: To the west is another stoa. Note the evidence of an inscription on one of the pillars. Difficult to make out, it records the financial aid given to the city by a man named Callis- thenes. It also mentions an alliance with lasus, The large, shapeless building near the road was probably a bath. Some underground tomb-chambers are visible beside the path leading from the road to the temple. They are roofed in the Carian manner with large slabs, and are admirably constructed. Unfortunately, other remnants of buildings and structures are in such poor condition that further identification is practically impossible.