Beyoğlu (Gr. Pera) : This is situated on the high ground north of the Golden Horn, and grew up gradually among the vineyards with which the hills were once covered, and developed as the European and diplomatic quarter. It is still the most cosmopolitan, part of Istanbul. The 2 main squares, Taksim and Tunnel Squares, which lie at each end, are connected by İstiklâl Caddesi, frorc which side streets diverge on both sides. Beyoğlu means Son of the.Prince
Taksim Square (Taksim Cumhuriyet Meydanı): Taksim the greatest square of Istanbul and scene of national ceremonies and parades, takes its name from the Word ‘’division”, for it was formerly a center of distribution of the water supply. It gradually developed from its former constriction and ugliness, and was laid out in Its present impressive form by the Municipal Council in 1941. Turkey’s finest opera house, the Atatürk Culture Center rises on its eastern side.
The Monument of the Republic : This impressive memorial to the War of Liberation was erected in 128. The figures are those of the leaders in the Revolution on the right, Atatürk; on the left İnönü, second President of the Republic, and in military uniform, Marshal Fevzi Çakmak, a great supporter of Atatürk in the War of Liberation. On the other face, Atatiirk gives his army the order to begin the attack which led to the final expulsion of the Greeks.
The Tunnel Square : Small, but important as a traffic focus, this square is the point from which the Şişli, Maçka and Kurtuluş buses leave, and the Tunnel begins.
The Tunnel : This 660 yard tunnel, constructed in 1873 by a French engineer largely with English capital, Is reputedly the world’s oldest underground railway, and provides a regular service between the low ground of Galata and Karaköy, and the high ground of Beyoğlu. .
The Galata Tower: Built by the Emperor Zeno, according to tradition, in the 5th century, and rebuilt by the Turks at the Conquest, and used by both as a lookout post. The top, of wood, in- Genoese days, was twice destroyed by fire, but restored immediately, It commands a good view of th3 city from the Saray Point to the Mosque of Fatih, and is used as a restaurant and night club.
Dolmabahçe Palace: When the harbor was filled in, Ahmet I built a wooden kiosk here, and later other kiosks and gardens; it became a summer residence of the Sultans. After being enlarged and attached to the Beşiktaş Palace, burnt down and rebuilt, used as a residence by Mahmut II for a time, and again damaged by fire, it was finally built in its present form in 1853 and used as a residence by several Sultans. It contains the separate quarters of the Sultan, his heir, his mother, the ladles of the court, and also the glass kiosk. The Sultans reception rooms-include 8 great halls. The palace Is full of European luxuries, and one sees many imitations of-Versailles, European and Turkish- architects were employed, soo the .style Is hybrid. Part of the furniture was also imported from-Europe, and the’ decorators and upholsterers were specialists from France and Italy. Money was spent lavishly on this palace, and the use of such costly materials as porphyry and crystal mas unsparing. it was In this palace that Atatürk died in 1938 .Beyond the Dolmabahçe Palace, we follow the main street to the gate of…
The Museum of Fine Arts and Sculpture: This museum contains examples of pictures by Turkish painters. Turkish painting, was largely stimulated and influenced by European painting, as was also the much younger sculpture, of which a few examples may be seen here. There Is in addition a-room containing a few pictures by European masters, and a room of reproductions of great masterpieces. Further along, by the Beşiktaş landing-stage, the tomb and statue of Barbaros stand in a small pork
The Statue of Barbaros: This statue, erected in 1943, commemorates the great Turkish sailor who in 1538 defeated the Doge of Genoa, Andrea Doria, at the decisive naval battle, of Preveza, This battle won for the Ottomans the supremacy over the Mediterranean. Opposite the park is the Mosque of Sinan Paşa, built in 1572 by Sinan the architect.
The Naval Museum : Situated at Beşiktaş near the Statue of Barbaras, this museum gives a general picture of the history of tihe Navy and the Ottoman Empire and also modern Turkey. It contain^ old charts, documents, models of ships and pfans of harbors etc.. Leaving Beşiktaş towards Ortakoy, wo pass under a bridge connecting the palace gardens, and, turning left up the road past the Mecidiye Mosque, just after it we come to the gates of…
The Yıldız Palace : The .Yıldız kiosk was first built here, on the high ground above Beşiktaş and Ortaköy, in 1850. Abdülâziz built another in its place which was extensively altered and enlarged by Abdüihamid II. The main building, with the men’s quarters, the women’s quarters, those of the staff and the library, is on the hill, but there are many other buildings scattered about the beautiful gardens, which Abdijlhomlt laid out with flowers, rare trees, a pond, cascades, and aviaries. He also built the Cihannüma Kiosk as a lookout tower.
The Merasim (Ceremony) Kiosk : This is one of the most beautiful kiosks in the park; here Abdülhamit received many visiting monarchs and foreign dignitaries. Its valuable carpet (700 sq. metres) is the-largest in the world, it is said that .the door and mother-of-pearl inlay of the salon facing the double staircase in front of the Kaiser’s bedroom were done by Abdülhamit himself, for his hobby was joinery.
The Malta and Çadır (Tent) Kiosks : These kiosks, architecturally undistinguished, have some historical interest. At the Cadir kiosk in 1S76, Mithat Paşa, father of Turkish liberalism, who proclaimed the Fundamental Law and the first Constitution, was arrested before his mock trial in the Malta Ki-osks. He was banished and murdered in exile at the Sultan’s orders. The 33 .years of Abdülho’mit’s reign saw a decaying regime of growing oppression and reaction, and he was finally deposed by an Army movement in 1908.
Military Museum : This unique collection of oriental weapons, uniforms, etc., formerly housed in the Church of St. Irene, is of great interest, and goes back before the Conquest.